CANCELLED - Specialized iNANO Lecture by Research Professor Stuart R. Stock
CANCELLED - Micro- and nano-scale structural quantification of shark mineralized cartilage
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Research Professor Stuart R. Stock, Dept. of Cell & Developmental Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, & Simpson Querrey Inst., Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL, USA
Micro- and nano-scale structural quantification of shark mineralized cartilage
The skeletons of elasmobranchs, which include sharks and rays, consist of cartilage (type 2 collagen). Some elasmobranch skeletal cartilage is mineralized with a bioapatite related to hydroxyapatite, and the centra (i.e., vertebral bodies) of sharks possess remarkable resistance to large in vivo strains exceeding 4%. It appears that these centra’s fracture resistance is related to a hierarchy of structures, and this talk focuses on the bioapatite micro- and nano-organization of the tissue.
Studying these very different size scales requires different techniques, especially considering that structural gradients in centra of shark orders Carcharhiniformes and Lamniformes can span tens of millimeters. Results of lab microCT on entire centra provide a 3D quantitative picture of the macrostructure and of microstructure down to the 20 micrometer scale. In blocks cut from centra, synchrotron microCT reveals that the centra tissue consists of closely spaced, mineralized trabeculae whose 3D characteristics can only be measured with volume element sizes below one micrometer. Nanostructure plays an important role in functionality of mineralized tissue based on collagen-bioapatite composite material. High- energy, position-resolved diffraction and small angle scattering with monochromatic x-rays furnishes precise data on various quantities: from the former, bioapatite lattice parameters, nanoparticle dimensions and crystallographic texture; from the later, values of the collagen D-period and sharpness of texture. Finally, 3D mapping of texture in entire centra is performed with energy dispersive diffraction; the first results on in situ compressive loading of centra are covered briefly. Speculation on how these different components contribute to in vivo mechanical performance concludes the talk.